Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)


Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: anesthetic implications in the obstetric patient:

Anaesthetic management of a parturient with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a case report:

Preoperative considerations in a patient with orthostatic intolerance syndrome:

Autonomic dysfunction – anaesthetic management


Abnormal baroreflex responses in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance:

Baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome:


Catecholamine-related molecules and disorders:

The broader view: catecholamine abnormalities:

Endothelial NO Synthase Polymorphisms and Postural Tachycardia Syndrome:;jsessionid=LnhQwG11yV0fKLVmTywMzWdZLQfyhxRq1HLnJ9

Chiari malformation/spinal cord involvement

Watch a presentation by physicians at The Chiari Institute and NIH as they discuss the
possible connection between POTS, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and Chiari Malformation:
(click on the Ehlers-Danlos National Foundation link)

Chiari 1 malformation redefined: Clinical and radiographic findings for 364 symptomatic patients:

Cerebral syncope in a patient with spinal cord injury:

Chiari Malformation:

Chiari, fibromyalgia, gastrointestinal problems, gulf war syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivities/environmental illness, orthostatic intolerance:

Sinus arrhythmia and pupil size in Chiari I malformation: evidence of autonomic dysfunction:

The Chiari Institute:

Autonomic nervous system disorders in 230 cases of basilar impression and arnold-chiari deformity:

Chiari I malformation as a cause of orthostatic intolerance symptoms: a media myth?

No increased herniation of the cerebellar tonsils in a group of patients with orthostatic intolerance:

Orthostatic intolerance and syncope associated with Chiari type I malformation:

Orthostatic hypotension following spinal cord injury: understanding clinical pathophysiology:

Chronic fatigue syndrome

Curious clue to chronic fatigue syndrome:

The importance of orthostatic intolerance in the chronic fatigue syndrome:

MEDLINEplus health information on chronic fatigue syndrome:

Chronic fatigue syndrome: A hypothesis focusing on the autonomic nervous system:

Dental Considerations

Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome: Dental Treatment Considerations by John K. Brooks, DDS; Laurie A. P. Francis, RDH:

Diabetes and autonomic neuropathy

Chronic administration of pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improves the cardiac autonomic nervous system in patients with type 2 diabetes:

Value of scintigraphy using meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine (MIBG) in the investigation of cardiac autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients. Comparison with Ewing tests:

Abnormal cardiovascular reflexes in juvenile diabetics as preclinical signs of autonomic neuropathy:

Response of the autonomous nervous system of the heart in diabetes mellitus:

MEDLINEplus health information on diabetes:


Blood volume perturbations in the postural tachycardia syndrome:

Quality of life in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome:

Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (Joint Hypermobility Syndrome)

Ehlers Danlos Syndrome. University of Washington, Seattle:

eMedicine Journal, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome:

Ehlers-Danlos National Foundation:

Dysautonomia News Winter 2003

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, classical type:

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hypermobility type:

Joint hypermobility syndrome: a complex constellation of symptoms:

Connective tissue disorders with spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid leaks and intracranial
hypotension: a prospective study:

Association Between Joint Hypermobility Syndrome and Panic Disorder:

Is joint hypermobility related to anxiety in a nonclinical population also?

Neurological manifestations of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome:;year=2005;volume=53;issue=3;spage=339;epage=341;aulast=Mathew

Your eyes and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome:


Management and treatment of ME: (This site shows the negative effects of exercise on a myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome dysfunctional brain)

The prevalence and significance of post-exercise (postural) hypotension in ultramarathon runners:



Vasovagal syncope and related disorders:

Certain cardiovascular indices predict syncope in the postural tachycardia syndrome:

Discovering the cause of syncope: A guide to the focused evaluation:


Fibromyalgia links page:

Our FM/CFS world:

National Fibromyalgia Research Association:

MEDLINEplus health information on fibromyalgia:

Elusive syndromes: Treating the biologic basis of fibromyalgia and related syndromes:

A novel holistic explanation for the fibromyalgia enigma: autonomic nervous system dysfunction:


Influence of the menstrual cycle on sympathetic activity, baroreflex sensitivity, and vascular
transduction in young women:


Hypovolemia in syncope and orthostatic intolerance role of the renin-angiotensin system:

Is this patient hypovolemic?

Idiopathic hypovolemia: a self perpetuating autonomic dysfunction?


Partial lipodystrophy in a boy:

Lipodystrophy, generalized:


Erythrocyte magnesium in symptomatic patients with primary mitral valve prolapse: relationship to symptoms, mitral leaflet thickness, joint hypermobility and autonomic regulation:

Cardiovascular consequences of magnesium deficiency and loss: pathogenesis, prevalence and manifestations. Magnesium and chloride loss in refractory potassium repletion:

Magnesium and therapeutics:

Magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of mitral valve prolapse:

Review and hypothesis: Might patients with the chronic fatigue syndrome have latent tetany
of magnesium deficiency:

The magnesium web site – Links to over 300 articles discussing magnesium and magnesium


Web Site for Cardiovascular and Autonomic Pharmacology:

Drug protects against nervous system failure:

Treatment of orthostatic hypotension with erythropoietin:

Effects of long-term clonidine administration on the hemodynamic and neuroendocrine postural
responses of patients with dysautonomia:

Cardiac vagal response to water ingestion in normal human subjects:

Medicinal uses of licorice through the millennia: the good and plenty of it:

Licorice root. A natural sweetener and an important ingredient in Chinese medicine:×1189.pdf

Licking latency with licorice root:

Adverse drug reactions related to drugs used in orthostatic hypotension: a prospective and systematic pharmacovigilance study in France:

Mitochondrial disease and dysautonomia

Mitochondrial cytopathy in adults: what we know so far:

Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies presenting with features of autonomic and visceral dysfunction:

A case of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with peripheral neuropathy and autonomic symptoms:

Neurologic presentations of mitochondrial disorders

Dysautonomia News Spring 2003

Mitral valve prolapse

Mitral valve prolapse:

The phenomenon of dysautonomia and mitral valve prolapse:

Exercise response in young women with mitral valve prolapse:

Multiple system atrophy/shy-drager syndrome

SDS/MSA support group:

Web site full of links to other sites about MSA/SDS:

Norepinephrine transporter

Genetic or acquired deficits in the norepinephrine transporter: current understanding of clinical

Orthostatic intolerance is not necessarily related to a specific mutation (Ala457Pro) in the human norepinephrine transporter gene:

Phenotypical evidence for a gender difference in cardiac norepinephrine transporter function:

The Nutcracker phenomenon

Does severe nutcracker phenomenon cause pediatric chronic fatigue?

Nutcracker phenomenon demonstrated by three-dimensional computed tomography:

Diagnosis of the nutcracker phenomenon using two-dimensional ultrasonography:

Magnetic resonance angiography in nutcracker phenomenon:

An effective “transluminal balloon angioplasty” for pediatric chronic fatigue syndrome with nutcracker phenomenon:

Nutcracker phenomenon treated with left renal vein transposition: a case report:

The nutcracker syndrome: its role in the pelvic venous disorders:


Quality of life in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome:

Impaired autonomic function is associated with increased morality, especially in subjects with diabetes, hypertension, or a history of cardiovascular disease: The Hoorn study:

Orthostatic hypotension in organic dementia: relationship between blood pressure, cortical blood flow and symptoms:

Neurocardiovascular instability, hypotensive episodes, and MRI lesions in neurodegenerative dementia:

Orthostatic hypotension in Alzheimer’s disease: result or cause of brain dysfunction?

Orthostatic hypotension as a risk factor for stroke:

Orthostatic hypotension

Treatment of orthostatic hypotension:

Orthostatic hypotension:

Cardiovascular Causes of Falls by Brian J. Carey and John F. Potter:

Orthostatic Hypotension by Bradley JG, Davis KA.

Evaluation of orthostatic hypotension: relationship of a new self-report instrument to laboratory-based measures by Schrezenmaier C, Gehrking JA, Hines SM, Low PA, Benrud-Larson LM, Sandroni P:

Characteristics of 100 consecutive patients presenting with orthostatic
hypotension by Ejaz AA, Haley WE, Wasiluk A, Meschia JF, Fitzpatrick PM:

Paraneoplastic syndromes

Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes producing weakness or sensory loss:

Reversible paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis associated with a benign ovarian teratoma:

Paraneoplastic autonomic neuropathy:

Immunological and endocrinological abnormalities in paraneoplastic disorders with involvement of the autonomic nervous system:


Biochemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma:


Pheochromocytoma support site: (with lots of links)

MEDLINEplus health information on pheochromocytoma:

Germ-line mutations in nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma:


Diagnosis and management of porphyria:

Porphyria web links:

Merck manual: porphyrias:

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome/orthostatic intolerance

Medscape: Postural Tachycardia Syndrome:

Postural tachycardia syndrome:

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: the Mayo clinic experience.

The Postural Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS): Pathophysiology, Diagnosis & Management

Orthostatic intolerance: an overview:

Orthostatic intolerance:

A review of the classification, diagnosis, and management of autonomic dysfunction syndromes associated with orthostatic intolerance:

Clinical disorders of the autonomic nervous system associated with orthostatic intolerance: an overview of classification, clinical evaluation and management:

The neuropathic postural tachycardia syndrome:

Evidence of an intrinsic sinus node abnormality in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome:

Hereditary dysautonomias: Current knowledge and collaborations for the future:
Oct 3, 2002
Oct. 4 2002

Effects of head-up tilting on baroreceptor control in subjects with different tolerances to orthostatic stress:

Vascular perturbations in the chronic orthostatic intolerance of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome:

American Autonomic Society: (be sure to visit the autonomic news section for information on the latest research)

Postural tachycardia syndrome and anxiety disorders:


Postpartum Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome in a Patient with the Joint Hypermobility Syndrome:

Outcomes of pregnancy in patients with preexisting postural tachycardia syndrome:

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: anesthetic implications in the obstetric patient:

Anaesthetic management of a parturient with the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome: a case report:

Research Studies

DINET studies page:

NDRF clinical research page:


Sleep information links:

Sleep-disordered breathing and hypotension:


12 More Pages:

STARS US (Syncope Trust and Reflex Anoxic Seizures)

STARS – syncope trust and reflex anoxic seizures:

Pediatric Network

Pheochromocytoma support site: (with lots of links)

National Dysautonomia Research Foundation:

Dysautonomia Youth Network of America (DYNA) (devoted to youth with dysautonomia)


American Syringomyelia Alliance Project, Inc.:

NINDS syringomyelia information page:

Postural tachycardia syndrome in syringomyelia: response to fludrocortisone and beta-blockers:

Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in patients with syringomyelia – a study with the sympathetic skin response:

Hyperhidrosis as the presenting symptom in post-traumatic syringomyelgia: (hyperhidrosis is excessive sweating)

Cardiovascular reflexes in syringomyelia:

MEDLINEplus health information on syringomyelia:


Assessment: Clinical Autonomic Testing

Testing the autonomic nervous system:

Head-upright tilt table testing: A safe and easy way to assess neurocardiogenic syncope:

The fainting patient: value of the head-upright tilt-table test in adult patients with orthostatic intolerance:


The Dysautonomia Information Network presents the first full length documentary about Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome.
Click here to order your copy of “Changes: Living with Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome” today.

POTS – Mayo Clinic:

POTS syndrome – Mayo Clinic:

The Woman who Kept Falling Down – Mystery Diagnosis – Part 1:

The Woman who Kept Falling Down – Mystery Diagnosis – Part 2:

The Woman who Kept Falling Down – Mystery Diagnosis – Part 3: